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Because of this property, the design was copied by Europeans and Americans who still produce them under the Inuit name kayak. In the winter, Inuit would also hunt sea mammals by patiently watching an aglu breathing hole in the ice and waiting for the air-breathing seals to use them.
This technique is also used by the polar bear, who hunts by seeking holes in the ice and waiting nearby. In winter, both on land and on sea ice, the Inuit used dog sleds qamutik for transportation.
The husky dog breed comes from Inuit breeding of dogs and wolves for transportation. The Inuit used stars to navigate at sea and landmarks to navigate on land; they possessed a comprehensive native system of toponymy.
Where natural landmarks were insufficient, the Inuit would erect an inukshuk. Dogs played an integral role in the annual routine of the Inuit.
They also protected the Inuit villages by barking at bears and strangers. The Inuit generally favored, and tried to breed, the most striking and handsome of dogs, especially ones with bright eyes and a healthy coat.
The Inuit would perform rituals over the newborn pup to give it favorable qualities; the legs were pulled to make them grow strong and the nose was poked with a pin to enhance the sense of smell.
Inuit industry relied almost exclusively on animal hides, driftwood , and bones, although some tools were also made out of worked stones, particularly the readily worked soapstone.
Walrus ivory was a particularly essential material, used to make knives. Art played a big part in Inuit society and continues to do so today.
Small sculptures of animals and human figures, usually depicting everyday activities such as hunting and whaling, were carved from ivory and bone.
In modern times prints and figurative works carved in relatively soft stone such as soapstone , serpentinite , or argillite have also become popular.
Inuit made clothes and footwear from animal skins, sewn together using needles made from animal bones and threads made from other animal products, such as sinew.
The anorak parka is made in a similar fashion by Arctic peoples from Europe through Asia and the Americas, including the Inuit.
Styles vary from region to region, from the shape of the hood to the length of the tails. Boots mukluk or kamik  , could be made of caribou or seal skin, and designed for men and women.
During the winter, certain Inuit lived in a temporary shelter made from snow called an igloo , and during the few months of the year when temperatures were above freezing, they lived in tents, known as tupiq ,  made of animal skins supported by a frame of bones or wood.
The division of labor in traditional Inuit society had a strong gender component, but it was not absolute. The men were traditionally hunters and fishermen and the women took care of the children, cleaned the home, sewed, processed food, and cooked.
However, there are numerous examples of women who hunted, out of necessity or as a personal choice. At the same time men, who could be away from camp for several days at a time, would be expected to know how to sew and cook.
The marital customs among the Inuit were not strictly monogamous: Open marriages , polygamy , divorce , and remarriage were known.
Among some Inuit groups, if there were children, divorce required the approval of the community and particularly the agreement of the elders.
Marriages were often arranged , sometimes in infancy , and occasionally forced on the couple by the community. Marriage was common for women at puberty and for men when they became productive hunters.
Family structure was flexible: Every household had its head, an elder or a particularly respected man. There was also a larger notion of community as, generally, several families shared a place where they wintered.
Goods were shared within a household, and also, to a significant extent, within a whole community. The Inuit were hunter—gatherers ,  and have been referred to as nomadic.
Loud singing and drumming were also customary after a birth. Virtually all Inuit cultures have oral traditions of raids by other indigenous peoples, including fellow Inuit, and of taking vengeance on them in return, such as the Bloody Falls massacre.
Western observers often regarded these tales as generally not entirely accurate historical accounts, but more as self-serving myths. However, evidence shows that Inuit cultures had quite accurate methods of teaching historical accounts to each new generation.
The historic accounts of violence against outsiders does make clear that there was a history of hostile contact within the Inuit cultures and with other cultures.
The known confederations were usually formed to defend against a more prosperous, and thus stronger, nation. Alternately, people who lived in less productive geographical areas tended to be less warlike, as they had to spend more time producing food.
Justice within Inuit culture was moderated by the form of governance that gave significant power to the elders. As in most cultures around the world, justice could be harsh and often included capital punishment for serious crimes against the community or the individual.
During raids against other peoples, the Inuit, like their non-Inuit neighbors, tended to be merciless. A pervasive European myth about Inuit is that they killed elderly senicide and "unproductive people",  but this is not generally true.
According to Franz Boas , suicide was "not of rare occurrence" and was generally accomplished through hanging. Aged people who have outlived their usefulness and whose life is a burden both to themselves and their relatives are put to death by stabbing or strangulation.
This is customarily done at the request of the individual concerned, but not always so. Aged people who are a hindrance on the trail are abandoned.
When food is not sufficient, the elderly are the least likely to survive. In the extreme case of famine , the Inuit fully understood that, if there was to be any hope of obtaining more food, a hunter was necessarily the one to feed on whatever food was left.
However, a common response to desperate conditions and the threat of starvation was infanticide. The belief that the Inuit regularly resorted to infanticide may be due in part to studies done by Asen Balikci,  Milton Freeman  and David Riches  among the Netsilik, along with the trial of Kikkik.
The research is neither complete nor conclusive to allow for a determination of whether infanticide was a rare or a widely practiced event. Anthropologists believed that Inuit cultures routinely killed children born with physical defects because of the demands of the extreme climate.
These views were changed by late 20th century discoveries of burials at an archaeological site. Between and , a storm with high winds caused ocean waves to erode part of the bluffs near Barrow, Alaska , and a body was discovered to have been washed out of the mud.
Unfortunately the storm claimed the body, which was not recovered. But examination of the eroded bank indicated that an ancient house, perhaps with other remains, was likely to be claimed by the next storm.
The site, known as the "Ukkuqsi archaeological site", was excavated. Several frozen bodies now known as the "frozen family" were recovered, autopsies were performed, and they were re-interred as the first burials in the then-new Imaiqsaun Cemetery south of Barrow.
It was a female child, approximately 9 years old, who had clearly been born with a congenital birth defect. Autopsies near Greenland reveal that, more commonly pneumonia , kidney diseases , trichinosis , malnutrition , and degenerative disorders may have contributed to mass deaths among different Inuit tribes.
The Inuit believed that the causes of the disease were of a spiritual origin. More common among the Canadian Inuit than it is among non-indigenous southern Canadians.
In the incidence in Nunavut Inuit traditional laws are anthropologically different from Western law concepts.
Customary law was thought non-existent in Inuit society before the introduction of the Canadian legal system. Hoebel , in , concluded that only "rudimentary law" existed amongst the Inuit.
No known Western observer before was aware that any form of governance existed among any Inuit,  however, there was a set way of doing things that had to be followed:.
We are told today that Inuit never had laws or "maligait". They say because they are not written on paper. When I think of paper, I think you can tear it up, and the laws are gone.
The laws of the Inuit are not on paper. The environment in which the Inuit lived inspired a mythology filled with adventure tales of whale and walrus hunts.
Long winter months of waiting for caribou herds or sitting near breathing holes hunting seals gave birth to stories of mysterious and sudden appearance of ghosts and fantastic creatures.
Some Inuit looked into the aurora borealis , or northern lights, to find images of their family and friends dancing in the next life.
This tale is still told to children today. The nearest thing to a central deity was the Old Woman Sedna , who lived beneath the sea.
The waters, a central food source, were believed to contain great gods. The Inuit practiced a form of shamanism based on animist principles. They believed that all things had a form of spirit, including humans, and that to some extent these spirits could be influenced by a pantheon of supernatural entities that could be appeased when one required some animal or inanimate thing to act in a certain way.
The angakkuq of a community of Inuit was not the leader, but rather a sort of healer and psychotherapist , who tended wounds and offered advice, as well as invoking the spirits to assist people in their lives.
His or her role was to see, interpret and exhort the subtle and unseen. Angakkuit were not trained; they were held to be born with the ability and recognized by the community as they approached adulthood.
Inuit religion was closely tied to a system of rituals integrated into the daily life of the people. These rituals were simple but held to be necessary.
According to a customary Inuit saying,. By believing that all things, including animals, have souls like those of humans, any hunt that failed to show appropriate respect and customary supplication would only give the liberated spirits cause to avenge themselves.
The harshness and unpredictability of life in the Arctic ensured that Inuit lived with concern for the uncontrollable, where a streak of bad luck could destroy an entire community.
To offend a spirit was to risk its interference with an already marginal existence. The Inuit understood that they had to work in harmony with supernatural powers to provide the necessities of day-to-day life.
Although the 50,  Inuit listed in the Canada Census can be found throughout Canada the majority, 44,, live in four regions. As of the Canada Census there were 4, Inuit living in Newfoundland and Labrador  and about 2, live in Nunatsiavut.
As of the Canada Census there were 24, Inuit living in Nunavut. As of the Canada Census there were 10, Inuit living in Quebec. The population size of Greenlandic people in Denmark varies from source to source between 15, and 20, According to figures from Statistics Denmark there are 15, people residing in Denmark of Greenlandic Inuit ancestry.
Nonetheless, it has come together with other circumpolar cultural and political groups to promote the Inuit and other northern people in their fight against ecological problems such as climate change which disproportionately affects the Inuit population.
At that event they signed the Nuuk Declaration. They are officially represented by the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation and, in , received a comprehensive land claims settlement, the first in Northern Canada, with the signing of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement.
This agreement called for the separation of the Northwest Territories into an eastern territory whose Aboriginal population would be predominately Inuit,  the future Nunavut, and a rump Northwest Territories in the west.
It was the largest land claims agreement in Canadian history. The Canadian Parliament passed the supporting legislation in June of the same year, enabling the establishment of Nunavut as a territorial entity.
With the establishment of Nunatsiavut in , almost all the traditional Inuit lands in Canada, with the exception NunatuKavut in central and South Labrador, are now covered by some sort of land claims agreement providing for regional autonomy.
Although still a part of the Kingdom of Denmark along with Denmark proper and the Faroe Islands , Greenland, known as Kalaallit Nunaat in the Greenlandic language , maintains much autonomy today.
Their economy is based on fishing and shrimping. The Thule people arrived in Greenland in the 13th century. There they encountered the Norsemen, who had established colonies there since the late 10th century, as well as a later wave of the Dorset people.
Because most of Greenland is covered in ice, the Greenland Inuit or Kalaallit only live in coastal settlements, particularly the northern polar coast, the eastern Amassalik coast and the central coasts of western Greenland.
Alaska is governed as a state with very limited autonomy for Alaska Native peoples. European colonization of Alaska started in the 18th century by Russia.
By the s, the Russian government was considering ridding itself of its Russian America colony. Alaska was officially incorporated to United States on January 3, Barrow , the northernmost city in the United States , is in the Inupiat region.
Inuit art , carving, print making, textiles and Inuit throat singing , are very popular, not only in Canada but globally, and Inuit artists are widely known.
Canada has adopted some of the Inuit culture as national symbols, using Inuit cultural icons like the inukshuk in unlikely places, such as its use as a symbol at the Winter Olympics in Vancouver.
Respected art galleries display Inuit art, the largest collection of which is at the Winnipeg Art Gallery. Some Inuit languages, such as Inuktitut, appears to have a more secure future in Quebec and Nunavut.
There are a surprising number of Inuit, even those who now live in urban centres such as Ottawa , Montreal and Winnipeg , who have experienced living on the land in the traditional life style.
Archived from the original on 14 January Retrieved 26 July Archived from the original on 29 March Retrieved 26 August Archived from the original on 31 August Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 14 July Archived from the original on 28 August Retrieved 2 April Retrieved 24 June Retrieved 1 June Retrieved 27 January Whales, walruses, seals, fish were staples of their diet.
Clothing for Staying Warm Traditional Inuit clothing was made from animal skins and fur. Boots were also made from animal skins.
Today the parka style of coat is worn in other places in the world and it is made of many other materials. Traditions Although Inuit life has changed significantly over the past century, many traditions continue.
Traditional storytelling, mythology , and dancing remain important parts of the culture. Family and community are very important.
The Inuktitut language is still spoken in many areas of the Arctic and is common on radio and in television programming. Changes to Inuit Life during the 20th Century Inuit a century ago lived very differently than Inuit today.
Before the s, Inuit had minimal contact with Europeans. Europeans passed through on their way to hunt whales or trade furs but very few of them had any interest in settling down on the frozen land of the Arctic.
So the Inuit had the place to themselves. They moved between summer and winter camps to always be living where there were animals to hunt.
In winter camps they lived in snow shelters called igloos. In summer camps they lived in tents made of animal skins and bones.
The Arctic had always been seen as inaccessible, but the invention of airplanes made it easier for non-Arctic dwellers to get there. Permanent settlements were created in the Arctic around new airbases and radar stations built to watch out for rival nations.
Schools and health care centers were built in these permanent settlements. In many places, Inuit children were required to attend schools that emphasized non-native traditions.
With better health care, the Inuit population grew larger, too large to sustain itself solely by hunting. Many Inuit from smaller camps moved into permanent settlements because there was access to jobs and food.
In many areas Inuit were required to live in towns by the s.